★ 谈诚信



in addition, furthermore, again, also, besides, moreover, what‘s more,
similarly, next, finally


in the same way, likewise, similarly, equally, in comparison, just as


whereas, in contrast, on the other hand, instead, however, nevertheless,
unlike, even though, on the contrary, while

4.因果(Cause and effect)

because, because of, for, since, due to, owing to, thanks to, as a
result(of), accordingly, hence, so, thus


certainly, above all, indeed, of course, surely, actually, as a matter
of fact, chiefly, especially, primarily, in particular, undoubtedly,
absolutely, most imprtant


although, though, after all, in spite of, nevertheless, still, provided,
while it is true….


for example, for instance, that is, namely, such as, in other words, in
this case, by way of illustration.


to sum up, to conclude, in a word, in short, in brief, all in all, in
all, to put it in a nutshell, in summary


therefore, as a result(of), consequently, accordingly, so, otherwise

10.时间和空间(Time and space)

afterward, after, first, later, then, soon, outside, near, beyound,
above, below, on the right(left), in the middle, opposite, in front of



A proverb says…… At present…….

As the proverb says…. Currently…..

Generally speaking, …. Now,….

In general, ….. On the Whole….

It is clear that…. Recently…..

It is often said that…. Without doubt, …….


First(of all), …… Moreover, ………

Firstly, ………… No one can deny that….

In the first place, ……… Obviously…..

To begin with, ……… Of course, ………

Also, ……. Similarly,………

At the same time…… Therefore, we should realize that…..

Certainly…… There is no doubt that…….

In addition,….. What`s more, ……….

In fact…….. It can be easily proved that…



But… Still, ……

But the problem is not so simple…

There is a certain amount of truth in this, but we still have a problem

with regard to…….


……. To our surprise,……….

Nevertheless, …….. Unfortunately…….

On the other hand, …….

Yet difference will be found and that is why I feel that……..

Others may find this to be true, but I do not. I think…..


Above all, In brief, ……..

Accordingly, ….. In conclusion, ……..

All in all, …….

In other words, it is hard to escape the conclusion that……..

As a consequence, ……… In short, ………

As I have shown/said/stated/…. In sum, ……..

In summary, ……. As has been noted, ….

Obviously, ……… By so doing, …..

On the whole, ….. Consequently, ……..

Presumably, ……. Eventually, ………

To conclude, …… Finally, ……..

To sum up, ….. In a word, ……

To summarize, ……

  ★ 人生态度——乐观与悲观

互动 – 判断下列连词并且翻译句子 ->思考如何快速阅读 例如节省一半的句子阅读时间

We thought the figures were correct. However, we have now discovered
some errors.

However, he smothered, as best he was able, these feelings.

If, however, you are an extrovert you are quite likely to enjoy it.

It was, however, a little disappointing.

The book is too long but, nonetheless, informative and entertaining.

The problems are not serious. Nonetheless, we shall need to tackle them

Nonetheless, it contains an element of truth.

He was very tired, nevertheless he kept working.

There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law.

Nevertheless, it is important that we try.

Nevertheless, they deserve notice and respect.

He was mortified by comparisons between his classmates’ good marks and
his own.

By comparison, expenditure on education increased last year.

By contrast, she was much more outspoken.

When you look at their new system, ours seems very old-fashioned by

He is young and therefore easily pervertible.

All sincere opinions should therefore be respected.

He is highly strung, and therefore, subject to heart attacks.

Therefore energy is now not a peripheral but a central issue in the

We have a growing population and therefore we need more and more food.

It’s hand made and hence expensive.

The computer has become smaller and cheaper and hence more available to
a greater number of people.

Life was thus made richer.

We have failed. Thus we have to take the consequences.

We hope the new machine will work faster, thus reducing our costs.

We’re able to do in-depth research and thus spot future trends.

Old people often try to economize on heating, thus endangering their

The universities have expanded, thus allowing many more people the
chance of higher education.

A rise in incomes will create increased purchasing power, thus
stimulating demand for goods and services.

We give money to charities, and thus salve our consciences.

In view of the recent developments, we do not think this step advisable.

Voluntary work was particularly important in view of the fact that women
were often forced to give up paid work on marriage.

Food is scarce and more often than not they go hungry.

More often than not, his dog will try to bite his guests.

On the one hand they’d love to have kids, but on the other, they don’t
want to give up their freedom.

The firm was accommodating its customers on the one hand and making
aggressive demands on the other.

What would you do, for instance, if you found a member of staff

It is a very nice town; it’s got very nice shops for instance.

Taking advertising for instance.

Let’s take Napoleon, for instance.

Murder, petty theft and tax evasion, for instance, all have different
motives and consequences.



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  常用引导词:when, as, while, as soon as, while, before, after, since
, till, until

  特殊引导词:the minute, the moment, the second, every time, the
day,the instant, immediately , directly, no sooner … than, hardly …when,
scarcely … when

  I didn’t realize how special my mother was until I became an adult.

  While John was watching TV, his wife was cooking.

  The children ran away from the orchard(果园) the moment they saw the

  No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.

  Every time I listen to your advice, I get into trouble.



  特殊引导词:wherever, anywhere, everywhere

  Generally, air will be heavily polluted where there are factories.

  Wherever you go, you should work hard.


  常用引导词:because, since, as, for

  特殊引导词:seeing that, now that, in that, considering that, given
that, considering that, as much as, so much as

  My friends dislike me because I’m handsome and successful.

  Now that everybody has come, let’s begin our conference.

  The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people
from trying to earn more.

  Considering that he is no more than 12 years old, his height of 1.80
m is quite remarkable.


  常用引导词:so that, in order that

  特殊引导词:lest, in case, for fear that,in the hope that, for the
purpose that, to the end that

  The boss asked the secretary to hurry up with the letters so that he
could sign them.

  The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students in the
back could hear more clearly.


  常用引导词:so that, so… that, such … that,

  特殊引导词:such that, to the degree that, to the extent that, to
such a degree that,

  He got up so early that he caught the first bus.

  It’s such a good chance that we must not miss it.

  To such an degree was he excited that he couldn’t sleep last night.


  常用引导词:if, unless,

  特殊引导词:as/so long as, only if, providing/provided that, suppose
that, in case that, on condition that

  We’ll start our project if the president agrees.

  You will certainly succeed so long as you keep on trying.

  Provided that there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting


  常用引导词:though, although, even if, even though

  特殊引导词: as(用在让步状语从句中必须要倒装),while ( 一般用在句首
),no matter …, in spite of

the fact that, while, whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, however,

  Much as I respect him, I can’t agree to his proposal.

  尽管我很尊敬他, 我却不同意他的建议。

  The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough.

  No matter how hard he tried, she could not change her mind.

  He won’t listen whatever you may say.


澳门网赌网址,  常用引导词:as(同级比较), than(不同程度的比较)

  特殊引导词:the more … the more … ; just as …, so…; A is to B what
/as X is to Y; no … more than; not A so much as B

  She is as bad-tempered as her mother.

  The house is three times as big as ours.

  The more you exercise, the healthier you will be.

  Food is to men what oil is to machine. 食物之于人,犹如油之于机器。


  常用引导词:as, as if, how

  特殊引导词:the way

  When in Rome, do as the Roman do.

  She behaved as if she were the boss.

  Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us.




用课堂讲授的连词框架完成以下书面作文 (任选一题)

1 学生是否应该打王者荣耀

2 雾霾是否有利于社会发展

3 中国学生是否应该出国留学


  B: It took us nearly two weeks to solve it.

复习五种基本结构 -> 如何把简单句搞复杂


The yard looks fine for a while.

Vitamins are organic compunds.


Vitamins are organic compunds necessary for the normal growth of life.


Vitamins are organic compunds necessary for the normal growth and
maintenance of life of animals, including man.


Vitamins are organic compunds necessary in small  amounts in the diet
for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals, including man.

necessary […..](形容词短语做后置定语修饰compunds)


The egg hatched.

An eagle’s egg was placed in the nest of a prairie chicken.

Itscratched in thedirt for seeds.

This trend began during the Second World War.


This trend began during the Second World War, when several goverments
came to this conclusion.


This trend began during the Second World War, when several goverments
came to this conclusion that specific demands cannot generally be
foreseen in detail.(同位语从句)


This trend began during the Second World War, when several goverments
came to this conclusion that specific demands that a goverment want to
make of its scientific establishment
cannot generally be foreseen in

make demands of


There are no quick fixes. This attitude leads to disappointment.

The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen helped toobscure
the great importance.


The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed
disappearance of the American frontier
helped to obscure the great


The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed
disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great
importance of changes in the conditionns and consequences of
international trade.


The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed
disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great
importance of changes in the conditionns and consequences of
international trade that occurred during the second half of the
nineteenth century.

主谓 间宾 直宾

He showed the guard his passport = He showed his passport to the guard.

I am going to buy her a gift = I am going to buy a gift for her.

The repairmancharged me ten dollors.

Her work won her the Nobel Prize in 1983.


Her work in genetics won United States scientific Barbara McClintock the
Nobel Prize in 1983.

主谓 宾 宾补

The chairman declared the  meeting over

You can leave the door open

Willa Cather considered this novel her best work.


Willa Cather considered her novel of life in nineteenth-ventury
Nebraska, My Antonia her best work.

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名词从句 + 状语从句

  ★ 故事发生于19世纪末期。那个时候,中国正遭受西方列强的蹂躏。

互动 – 利用以上的连词组成最基本的写作框架(不会的单词用中文标注)。

1 学生是否应该打王者荣耀

2 雾霾是否有利于社会发展

3 中国学生是否应该出国留学


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澳门网赌网址 7


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  Cleanness is to the canteen what reputation is to the

  Honesty is to the people what life is to the





  ④There was a three-fold increase in the sale of luxuries from the
end of 1999 to 2009.

  A+ be+倍数+as many/much as+ B

  ★ 投诉信

  A: The story happened in the late 19th century.

  →合并为结果状语从句The problem was so complicated that it took us
nearly two weeks to solve it.

  B: At that time, China was suffering from the invasion of western


  ③A three-fold increase was seen in the sale of luxuries from the end
of 1999 to 2009.


  Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the